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Unveiling the Secrets of the Indus Valley Civilization

Secrets of Indus the Valley Civilization

Indus Valley is the largest civilization in the world, with an area of more than 386,000 square miles. It flourished around 2600 BC and is mostly located in Pakistan and northwestern India. Indus Valley civilization is known for its excellent urban planning, highly developed craftsmanship, systematic writing system and more. So, let us dive deep into the Indus Valley civilization and uncover some interesting facts about it.

Who discovered the Indus Valley civilization?

Many architects and researchers contributed to the discovery of the Indus Valley civilization. Sh Daya Ram Sahni directed the excavation of the site in 1920-1921. He finds various structures, layouts and artefacts of this ancient city. He was the director of the Archaeological Survey of India in the early 20th century. After that, Sir John Hubert Marshell led the excavation of the Harappa sites, discovering Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in 1921-1923. Many other archaeologists worked over several years to understand the Indus Valley civilization. These archaeologists were R.D. Banerjee, Stein, N.G. Majumdar, Ghose, R. Rao, J. P Joshi, R.S Bisht and many more. 

Characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley civilization was named after the Indus River- one of the major rivers in South Asia. Many archaeologists discovered the ruins of civilizations near the banks of the Indus and named it Indus Valley civilization. Mohenjo-daro was the largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was also the city with the most sophisticated engineering and urban planning. Harappa was a city in the Indus Valley- now in Pakistan that had protected administrative and religious centres. Some of the findings of the Indus Valley civilization are as follows.

1. Drainage system

2. Water supply system

3. Large non-residential system

4. Baked brick houses

5. New techniques for handicrafts and metallurgy.

Urban Planning and Infrastructure

The Indus Valley civilization is known for its notable urban planning. The roads were cut at right angles and made using baked bricks. Like modern street lights, they had lamp posts at regular intervals. Archaeologists also found dustbins, which showed their excellency in the municipal administration. Multi-storey houses and public structures such as baths were also found during excavation. They also had advanced drainage systems with covered pipes, public wells and more.

Agriculture and Trade

Indus Valley civilization's agriculture system was facilitated by the fertile and rich floodplains. Crops such as wheat, barley and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley civilization. Trade played a prominent role in the economy of the Indus civilization, as evidenced by their trade with distant civilizations like Mesopotamia. Most of the people who lived in cities were either merchants or traders. Social science NCERT books of classes (6th, 7th, and 8th) have discussed agriculture and trade and other aspects of Indus Valley civilization. The best CBSE school in Baddi will help you explore these subjects in detail through projects, supplementary material and more.

The Great Bath

Researchers found a structure in Mohenjo-daro that resembles a modern swimming pool; Bricks were used to make the floor of the pool-like structure. They also painted it with gypsum to prevent water leakage from the pool/tank. They constructed steps on both sides of the swimming pool. The water from the tank was drained through a drain constructed for this. Changing rooms were also found near the bath. The design of the Great Bath showcased their technological advancements in the era when there was no modern machinery.

Art and Craftmanship

Indus Valley excavation found sculptures, seals, pottery jewellery and other figures that were made of bronze, terracotta, etc. One of the figures found in the Indus Valley civilization is a priest-like man with a beard. Another important figure is a dancing girl. People of the Indus Valley civilization are also believed to have created jewellery such as bangles and necklaces.


Very little is known about the writing and religion of the Indus Valley civilization. Written text is found on the clay and stone tablets of the Indus Valley civilization. But it still can’t be encoded. Some believe it to be an Indo-Eurepean language, while others believe it to be a South Indian language. It is not similar to the languages found in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt.

Decline of The Civilization 

Many theories are related to the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. One theory suggests that an Indo-European tribe of Aryans conquered the Indus Valley. However, many pieces of evidence contradict this claim and debunk the Aryan invasion theory. Some experts believe that climate change led to the decline of the civilization. So, the exact reason for the decline is not known.

Interesting facts on Indus Valley civilization 

1. During the excavations, Banawali in Haryana, Ropar in Punjab, Kalibangan in Rajasthan Lothal, Surkotada and many in Gujarat were found.

2. Archaeologists such as Daya Ram Sahni, Marshall, Rai Bahadur and many others discovered Harappan ruins.

3. Similarly, archaeologists such as R.D. Banerjee and E.J. H Mackay have discovered Mohenjo-daro ruins.

4. Most of the sites in the Indus Valley civilization have the same pattern.

What you will learn about Indus Valley's Civilization at school?

Indus Valley civilization plays a prominent role in Indian history and is an integral part of the school curriculum. You will learn more about this old but most advanced civilization at the best schools in Nalagarh. Grade 6th social science introduces children to Indus Valley civilization, and as the classes/grade progress, their exploration of this and other civilizations deepens. It is also a significant topic for competitive examinations, such as Indian administrative services.

Also Read: National Awards of India.

The conclusion

Indus Valley civilization still fascinates scholars and researchers because of its excellent urban planning, art and craftsmanship, agriculture, and more. Archaeologists have continued working to uncover the secrets of the Indus Valley civilization. As more and more secrets are unveiled, we are coming closer to understanding this remarkable civilization.