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Schedules of the Indian Constitution

schedules of indian constitution

Drafted in 1949 and adopted on 26th January 1950, the Indian constitution is not just a collection of articles. It also includes twelve schedules, each serving a specific purpose. Do you know about those twelve schedules of the Indian constitution? Almost everyone has heard about those schedules, but only a few know the purpose.

While the articles outline the fundamental framework of Indian governance, these schedules provide essential details and clarifications that bring the constitution to life. If you are not aware of these schedules, then this blog is just for you. Keep reading till the end to learn everything about the twelve schedules of the Indian constitution.

The Role of Schedules

The Indian constitution lays out the governance framework. But at first glance, it might look daunting. That’s where the schedules come in. Embedded within the Indian constitution are twelve supplementary sections called schedules that play a vital role in ensuring its clarity and functionality.

These schedules of the Indian Constitution serve two key purposes:

  • Simplifying the Constitution: The main body of the Constitution is full of intricate details and schedules help declutter it by containing supplementary information like lists, specific procedures, or technical provisions referenced in the Articles. This helps keep the core articles concise and easier to understand.
  • Providing Additional Provisions: In addition to simplifying the constitution, the schedules offer crucial details that flesh out the Articles. For example, Schedule 7 divides legislative power between the Central and State governments, while Schedule 1 lists the states and territories of India.

The twelve schedules of the Indian Constitution can be divided into two categories, including:

  • Original Eight Schedules: These were introduced at the time of the adoption of the Constitution. They deal with basic things such as the parliamentary seat distribution or the management of tribal regions.
  • Later Additions: Four schedules were introduced through subsequent amendments to address changing needs. For example, Schedule 9 deals with laws considered immune to Judicial review on grounds of violating fundamental rights, while Schedule 11 and 12 empower Panchayats and Municipalities respectively.

In short, the twelve schedules of the Indian constitution provide supplement details and crucial provisions that complement the core Articles. They ensure clarity, comprehensiveness, and effective implementation of the Constitution’s vision for a democratic India.

List of Schedules of the Indian Constitution

The table given below consists of the list of schedules of the Indian Constitution and knowing about them is essential for every person residing in the country.

List of Schedules of the Indian Constitution
SchedulesYear AddedFeaturesArticles Covered
First Schedule1949Lists the States and Territories of India.Article 1, Article 4
Second Schedule1949Specifies salaries and allowances for constitutional positions like President, Governors, Members of Parliament, etc.Article 59, Article 65, Article 75, Article 97, Article 125, Article 148, Article 158, Article 164, Article 186, Article 221
Third Schedule1949Deals with oaths or affirmations taken by the President, Governors, judges, and other officials.Article 75, Article 84, Article 99, Article 124, Article 146, Article 173, Article 188, Article 219
Fourth Schedule1949Explains the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to different states and territories.Article 4, Article 80
Fifth Schedule1949Provides provisions for the administration of Scheduled Areas in some states.Article 244
Sixth Schedule1949Deals with the management of tribal areas in particular states, such as Mizoram, Assam, Tripura, and Meghalaya.Article 244, Article 275
Seventh Schedule1949Divides legislative powers between the Central Government (Union List), State Governments (State List), and both (Concurrent List).Article 246
Eighth Schedule1949Lists the official languages of India.Article 344, Article 351
Ninth Schedule1951It lists laws that cannot be challenged in court on grounds of violating fundamental rights. (This has been a debated topic) Article 31-B
Tenth Schedule1985It deals with the disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures who defect from their party. (Anti-Defection Law)Article 102, Article 91
Eleventh Schedule1992Describes the duties, authority, and powers of Panchayats.Article 243-G
Twelfth Schedule1992It outlines the duties, jurisdiction, and capabilities of municipalities.Article 243-W

The table contains brief information about all the schedules of the Indian constitution, here are more details about each schedule:

First Schedule

The first schedule of the Indian constitution lists the names of the states and territories of India. It defines the geographical extent of the nation and is crucial for understanding federal structure.

Second Schedule

This schedule specifies the salaries and allowances for various high constitutional positions, including:

  • Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
  • Comptroller & Auditor General of India
  • Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Legislative Councils
  • Governors of Indian States
  • High Court Judges
  • President of India
  • Supreme Court Judges
  • Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Legislative Assemblies
  • Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha

Third Schedule

The third schedule of the Indian Constitution outlines the exact wording of oaths or affirmations taken by various officials upon assuming their roles, including:

  • Comptroller and Auditor General
  • High Court Judges
  • Members of Parliament
  • Parliament Election Candidates
  • State Ministers
  • State Legislature Elections’ Candidates
  • State Legislature Members
  • Supreme Court Judges
  • Union Ministers of India

Fourth Schedule

Fair representation in the Rajya Sabha is essential for a balanced federal structure. This schedule defines the allocation of seats for each state and territory based on population, ensuring all regions have a voice in national matters.

Fifth Schedule

As you know India has a significant tribal population with unique social and cultural needs. The Indian constitution's fifth schedule contains unique guidelines for the management and advancement of these Scheduled Areas. It empowers tribal communities with some extent of autonomy and helps preserve their cultural heritage.

Sixth Schedule

The Sixth Schedule, like the Fifth Schedule, deals with the management of Tribal Areas in certain northeastern states, such as Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. It grants these areas greater autonomy in managing their affairs while safeguarding the rights of indigenous communities.

Seventh Schedule

The seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution divides legislative powers between the Central Government (Union List), State Governments (State List), and areas where both have authority (Concurrent List). Here’s what each list covers:

Union List

  • National Security,
  • Foreign Affairs,
  • Currency,
  • War and Peace,
  • Communication, etc.

State List

  • Law and Order,
  • Public Health,
  • Agriculture,
  • Local Government,
  • Police, etc.

Concurrent List

  • Education,
  • Forests,
  • Electricity,
  • Criminal Law, etc.

Also Read about different Indian National Symbols

Eighth Schedule

India is a land of rich linguistic diversity and the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution recognises this by listing the nation’s official languages. This list of official languages includes the following:

  1. Assamese
  2. Bengali
  3. Bodo
  4. Dogri (Dongri)
  5. Gujarati
  6. Hindi
  7. Kannada
  8. Kashmiri
  9. Konkani
  10. Mathili (Maithili)
  11. Malayalam
  12. Manipuri
  13. Marathi
  14. Nepali
  15. Oriya
  16. Punjabi
  17. Sanskrit
  18. Santhali
  19. Sindhi
  20. Tamil
  21. Telugu
  22. Urdu

Ninth Schedule

Schedule Nine contains a list of laws that cannot be challenged in court on the basis of violating fundamental rights. This schedule was added to the Constitution in 1951 by the First Constitutional (Amendment) Act. In order to safeguard legislation related to agricultural reform and the abolition of the Zamindari system, new Article 31B and Article 31A were adopted.

Tenth Schedule

Party hopping can be disruptive in a democracy. Schedule 10 of the Indian Constitution, also known as the Anti-Defection Law, deals with the disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures who switch parties after being elected on a particular party’s platform. This promotes stability and discourages opportunistic defections.

Eleventh Schedule

Empowering local government is key to a strong democracy. This schedule outlines the powers, authority, and responsibility of Panchayats (village-level councils). This includes planning for economic development and social justice at the grassroots level.

Twelfth Schedule

Similar to the eleventh schedule, Schedule twelfth of the Indian Constitution empowers Municipalities (urban local bodies) by specifying their powers and responsibilities. This includes areas like urban planning, sanitation, and infrastructure development. Decentralized governance through Panchayats and Municipalities brings government closer to the people.

In Conclusion

Many people are familiar with the Indian Constitution, but not everyone knows about the twelve schedules that support its clarity and organization. These twelve schedules of the Indian Constitution inform citizens and empower them to engage meaningfully in discussions about governance, law, and constitutional rights. Additionally, some of India's schedules help ensure that all operations are conducted in appropriate ways.

For instance, the tenth schedule prevents political leaders from disrupting democracy by frequently switching parties for their own benefit. If you are not familiar with the twelve schedules of the Indian Constitution, make sure you read this blog carefully and learn all about these schedules.